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BiotecFungi Intensive Programme course are full time and consist of 60 teaching hours over the two weeks period (6 hours per day). In addition, we recommend 2 hours of self-study per day. Lectures, attended by all students, take place in the morning (9:30 - 12:30) and afternoon (14:00 - 17:00). All the material will be available for students through e-learning system of IPB and Bibliographic material to support the classes will be available for the students.
 
Module 1: Mycology and Agricultural Biotechnology. A general Overview
 
Lecturers: Paula Baptista (PhD); ESAB/Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Portugal
Aims: The aim of this module is to provide an introduction to the basic concepts in mycology.
Topics: Introduction and significance of fungi; General characteristics of fungi; Classification and nomenclature; Ecology; Physiology; Cellular structures and function; Reproduction; Growth; Genetics and representative candidates in all Phyla.
Teaching Methodology: Expositive methodology using powerpoint presentations. Lectures notes will be deposited in the e-learning resources. Practice of fungi identification and morphological characterization by macroscopic and microscopic analysis.
Evaluation: Reports of practical laboratorial experiments on a particular fungus.
Bibliography:
Alexopoulos CJ, Mimms CW, Blackwell M (1996) Introductory Mycology, 4th edition), Wiley
Carlile MJ, Watkinson SC, Gooday GW (2001) The Fungi, 2nd ed., Academic Press
Deacon J (2005) Fungal Biology, 4th ed., Wiley-Blackwell
Kendrick B (2001) The Fifth Kingdom, 3rd ed., Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Company
Webster J (2007) Introduction to Fungi, 3rd ed., Cambridge University Press

Module 2 – Agricultural applications of fungi - approaches for plant protection

Lecturers: José Alberto Pereira (PhD), Albino Bento (PhD), Eugénia Gouveia (PhD), Anabela Martins (PhD); ESAB/Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Portugal. Joachim Sauerborn (PhD); University of Hohenheim, Germany.
Aims: Describe the current status of research on fungi applications as biological control agents against plant pathogens, insect pests and weeds, and as plant growth promoter and disease suppressor, for Sustainable Agriculture.
Topics:
Session 1. Biological control of plant pathogens by fungi: definitions, history, and importance. Plant pathogen groups and characteristics. How the pathogens attack, cause disease, disease cycle (with especially emphasis to fungi and soil-borne fungi pathogens). Plant disease management practices (examples of pesticides and problems). Biological control of fungi pathogens on aerial surfaces; and biological control of soil - borne fungi pathogens. Mechanisms of biological control of plant pathogens by fungi: Indirect mechanisms (induced resistance in host plants, and competition); Direct mechanisms (mycoparasitism, hydrolytic enzymes, antibiotics, siderophores, physical/chemical interference….). Some examples of fungi used against fungal pathogens with some success.
Session 2. Biological control of insects by fungi: definitions, history, and importance. Insect pest groups and characteristics (examples). How insect pests attack, cause damage, pest cycle (examples of pests). Plant pest management practices (examples of pesticides and problems). Entomopathogenic fungi and their role in pest control: taxonomy, infection process and mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis in insects. Some examples of fungi used against insect pest with some success.
Session 3. Biological control of weeds by fungi: History and importance of weed biological control. Biocontrol of weeds by fungal plant pathogens: steps involved in a weed biocontrol program (Search for and selection of agents, Host specificity testing requirements and procedures/permitting; Release and establishment techniques for control agents; and Evaluation of control agent impacts). Case studies.
Session 4. Fungi as plant growth promoter and disease suppressor: definitions, history and importance. Contribution of plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) and mycorrhizal fungi to plant health and development. Some examples of PGPF; Mechanisms of plant growth promotion by PGPF (hormone production, mineralization and suppression of deleterious microorganisms). Mycorrhizal fungi: types of mycorrhizas (endo-, ecto and ectendomycorrhizas), its effects on plant growth (use of mineral and water resources, alleviating abiotic stress) and on plant health (enhancement of plant nutrient status and damage compensation, competence for photosynthates and colonization sites, changes in radical architecture, anatomy and longevity, activation of host plant defence response).
Teaching Methodology: Expositive methodology using powerpoint presentations. Lectures notes will be deposited in the e-learning resources. Laboratory classes.
Evaluation: Critical review of one journal article selected by the student on a topic of the present module, which will enable students to consolidate their knowledge and understanding of the subject areas that need further study. Paper critiques will consist of a student-led presentation, and a 1-3 page review of the paper highlighting the hypotheses, assumptions, assertions, evidence, and implications of the work.
Bibliography:
Arora DK (2004) Fungal Biotechnology in Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Applications, Mycology Series, Vol. 21, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York
Butt TM, Jackson CW, Magan N (2001) Fungi as Biocontrol Agents: Progress, Problems and Potential, CABI
Cook RJ, Baker KF (1983) The nature and practice of biological control of plant pathogens. APS Press, St. Paul
Gnanamanickam S (2002) Biological Control of Crop Diseases. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York
Khan MS, Zaidi A, Musarrat J (2009) Microbes in Sustainable Agriculture, Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Lawrence JF, Milner RJ (1996) Associations between fungi and arthropods. Fungi of Australia Vol 1B
Robson GD, van West P, Gadd GM (2007) Exploitation of Fungi. CUP
Smith SE, Read DJ (2007) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 3rd ed, Academic Press

Module 3 – Isolation, molecular identification and screening of fungal biocontrol agents

Lecturers: Paula Baptista (PhD), Eugénia Gouveia (PhD), José Alberto Pereira (PhD) and Albino Bento (PhD); ESAB/Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Portugal. Enrique Quesada-Moraga (PhD); University of Cordoba, Spain.
Aims: Familiarize students with techniques used in fungi isolation, culture, molecular identification and in the screening of biocontrol agents. Creation of a fungi collection.
Topics:
Session 1. Isolation and maintenance of fungi. Aseptic working; safety in working with fungi; single-spore cultures; preparation of media; choice of media, axenic isolation of fungi from insects, soil and plants; incubation; microscopic examination (light microscopy); mounting fluids; preparations; stains; growth studies; preservation of living cultures; herbarium techniques.
Session 2. Molecular identification of fungi. Isolation of genomic DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Agarose gel electrophoresis; Automated sequencing; Nucleotide BLAST search; Phylogenetic analysis; DNA barcoding. Sequence data will be deposited into databases maintained at The National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
Session 3. Screening of fungal biocontrol agents. Screening methods based on in vitro dual culture assays (tests of antagonisms), antibiosis in vitro assays, and in vitro and in vivo bioassays. LC50 and LT50 as a measure of fungi pathogenicity and virulence.
Teaching Methodology: Expositive methodology using powerpoint presentations. Lectures notes will be deposited in the e-learning resources. Laboratory classes and computer labs.
Evaluation: Written laboratory report, which should include the several steps necessary for the identification of a potential fungal biocontrol agent.
Bibliography:
Jansson JK, Trevors JT (2006) Modern Soil Microbiology (Books in Soils, Plants, and the Environment), 2 edition, CRC Press

Module 4 - Proteomics approaches for the understanding of biological control

Lecturer: Enrique Quesada-Moraga (PhD); University of Cordoba, Spain.
Aims: Describe some common approaches currently used in the identification of toxic proteins produced by fungal biocontrol agents.
Topics: Proteomic approach to separate and identify proteins from fungal biocontrol agents; Induction of production of fungi toxic metabolites (solid and liquid culture), Protein extraction; Protein separation by chromatography (LC, HPLC, TLC) and electrophoresis (including SDS-PAGE, IEF - Isoelectric Focusing, and 2-D electrophoresis); Protein identification by Gel-based methods 2-DE and MS-based methods. Biosynthesis of antimicrobial secondary metabolites by fungal biocontrol agents and its role in the pathogenesis process. Examples of toxic metabolites produced by some important fungal biocontrol agents (e.g. destruxins, efrapeptins, oosporein, beauvericin, bassianolide, beauveriolide, hirsutellin, gliotoxin, eniantins, among others). Case study: Bassiacridin a protein toxic produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.
Teaching Methodology: Expositive methodology using power point presentations. Lectures notes will be deposited in the e-learning resources. Laboratory classes.
Evaluation: Critical review of one journal article selected by the student on a topic of the present module.
Bibliography:
Butt TM, Jackson CW, Magan N (2001) Fungi as Biocontrol Agents: Progress, Problems and Potential, CABI
Quesada-Moraga E, Vey A (2004) Bassiacridin, a protein toxic for locusts secreted by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Mycological Research, 108: 441-452
Simpson RJ (2002) Proteins and Proteomics: A Laboratory Manual Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; Lab Manual edition
Twyman RM (2004) Principles of Proteomics (Advanced Text Series), 1st edition, BIOS Scientific Publ.
Westermeier R (2004) Electrophoresis in Practice: A Guide to Methods and Applications of DNA and Protein Separations, 4th ed, Wiley VCH

Module 5 - Production, stabilisation and formulation of fungal biocontrol agents

Lecturers: José Alberto Pereira (PhD) and Paula Baptista (PhD), ESAB/Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Portugal.
Aims: Familiarize students with some techniques and methods used in the production and preparation of fungi formulation (biopesticides)
Topics: Nutritional and environmental culture conditions for fungi that enhance production of propagules, tolerance to stressfull agents (UV, dehydration), stability and effectiveness of biocontrol agents. The use of experimental designs for selecting optimal culture conditions. Technologies used for stabilization (freeze-drying, spray-drying, micro-encapsulation…), protection from harmful environmental factors. Some examples of fungi that have been successfully commercialized and are currently marketed as EPA-registered biopesticides in the United States.
Teaching Methodology: Expositive methodology using power point presentations. Lectures notes will be deposited in the e-learning resources. Laboratory classes.
Evaluation: Critical review of one journal article selected by the student on a topic of the present module, which will enable students to consolidate their knowledge and understanding of the subject areas that need further study. Paper critiques will consist of a student-led presentation, and a 1-3 page review of the paper highlighting the hypotheses, assumptions, assertions, evidence, and implications of the work.
Bibliography:
Cliquet S, Zeeshan K. (2008) Impact of nutritional conditions on yields, germination rate and shelf-life of Plectosporium alismatis conidia and chlamydospores as potential candidates for the development of a mycoherbicide of weeds in rice crops. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 1: 1-11
Gibbs PA, Seviour RJ, Schmid F (2000) Growth of filamentous fungi in submerged culture: problems and solutions. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 20: 17-48.
Jackson MA, Schisler DA (1992) The composition and attributes of Colletotrichum truncatum spores are altered by the nutritional environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58: 2260-2265
Jackson MA, Cliquet S, Iten LB (2003) Media and Fermentation Processes for the Rapid Production of High Concentrations of Stable Blastospores of the Bioinsecticidal Fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 13: 23-33.
Wraight SL de, Jackson SP, Kokc MA (2001) Production, stabilization and formulation of fungal biocontrol agents. In Fungi as Biocontrol Agents: Progress, Problems and Potential, Butt TM, Jackson CW, Magan N (ed), CABI, pp 253

 

IP Coordinator
Paula Baptista
pbaptista@ipb.pt
Department: Biology and Biotechnology
School of Agriculture
Campus de Santa Apolónia
Apartado 1172
5301-855 Bragança - Portugal
Phone: +351 273 303 332
Fax: +351 273 313 405
Key Dates
IP Date:
12/06/2011 to 26/06/2011
Application Deadline:
15/05/2011
Arrival to Bragança:
12/06/2011
Departure from Bragança:
26/06/2011
Application Documents
Campus de Santa Apolónia - 5300-253 BRAGANÇA * Tel: (+351) 273 303 200 / (+351) 273 331 570 - Fax: (+351) 273 325 405 * E-mail: suporte@ipb.pt